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    • Suite 306, Royal Bank Building 1597 Bedford Highway Bedford
    Cerium, atomic no. 57, symbol Ce, weight at 140.12, is the most abundant of the rare earths. It is strongly acidic and a strong oxidizer. In glass industry, it is considered to be the most efficient glass polishing agent for precision optical polishing. It is also used to decolorize glass by keeping iron in its ferrous state. Cerium is also used in a variety of ceramics, including dental compositions and as a phase stabilizer in zirconia-based products. In catalytic converters Cerium acts as a stabilizer for the high surface area alumina, as a promoter of the water-gas shift reaction, and as an oxygen storage component. It is used in FCC catalysts containing zeolites to provide both catalytic reactivity in the reactor and thermal stability in the regenerator. In steel manufacturing, it is used to remove free oxygen and sulfur.
    • 3028-2560 Shell Road Richmond
    Ytterbium resembles Yttrium in broad chemical behavior. The metal, when subject to very high stresses, increases its electrical resistance by an order of magnitude and is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations caused, for example, by nuclear explosions. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. One isotope is reported to have been used as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricity is unavailable. Few other uses have been found.
    • 5619 DTC Parkway Suite 1000 Greenwood Village
    Promethium has not been found to occur naturally on earth, but can be manufactured and has a number of potential uses.
    • 8F-1, NO.420, Sec.1, Keelung Rd Taipei
    Terbium helps enable energy efficient fluorescent lamps, and Terbium metal alloys help to provide suitable metallic films for magneto-optic recording of data. Sodium terbium borate is used in solid-state devices. It can be used with ZrO2 as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperature.
    • 5619 DTC Parkway Suite 1000 Greenwood Village
    Yttrium, making up only about 0.2% of the Rare Earth content of Bastnasite, is typically not recovered from this mineral. Rather, ion-adsorption ores provide the bulk of the world’s Yttrium. Every vehicle contains Yttrium based materials that help improve the efficiency of fuels, thereby eliminating excess pollution. Another important use of Yttrium is in microwave communication devices for the defense and satellite industries. Yttrium Iron Garnets (YIG) are used as resonators for use in frequency meters, magnetic field measurement devices, tunable transistors and Gunn oscillators. Yttrium containing garnets are used in cellular communications devices by industries such as defense, satellites and phones. Yttrium and other Lanthanides have many high-tech and defense uses including being used as a stabilizer and mold former for exotic light-weight jet engine turbines and other parts, and as a stabilizer material in rocket nose cones. Yttrium, as well as many other Lanthanides, can also be formed into laser crystals specific to spectral characteristics for military communications. Yttrium ceramics can be used as crucibles for melting reactive metals and as nozzles for jet casting molten alloys. The benefits of Yttrium are also obtained by coating the oxide on other substrates. The precision investment casting of titanium utilizes the oxide as the face coat on the exposed surface of the casting mold. Small amounts of yttrium (0.1 to 0.2%) can be used to reduce the grain size in chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, and titanium, and to increase strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Alloys with other useful properties can be obtained by using yttrium as an additive. The metal can be used as a deoxidizer for vanadium and other nonferrous metals. The metal has a low cross section for nuclear capture. 90Y, one of the isotopes of yttrium, exists in equilibrium with its parent 90Sr, a product of nuclear explosions. Yttrium has been considered for use as a nodulizer for producing nodular cast iron, in which the graphite forms compact nodules instead of the usual flakes. Such iron has increased ductility. Yttrium also can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. Everyday products also utilize Yttrium. Each car contains oxygen sensors composed of Yttrium based ceramic materials. These sensors provide for the most efficient use of fuel and eliminate excess pollution from burnt fuels. Yttrium can also be found in your home as Yttrium-Europium phosphors produce the red color in CRT televisions and computer screens. And maybe even on your hand, as Yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia produces simulated diamonds.
    • 5619 DTC Parkway Suite 1000 Greenwood Village
    • Level 5, 16 St Georges Terrace Perth
    Praseodymium, just 4% of the Lanthanide content of Bastnasite, is a common coloring pigment. Along with Neodymium, Praseodymium is used to filter certain wavelengths of light. Praseodymium is used in photographic filters, airport signal lenses, and welder’s glasses. Its color allows production of various pigments used in coloring products such as ceramic tile and glass. Vibrant yellow ceramic tiles and glasses most likely contain Praseodymium and certain premium quality mirrors and lenses also depend on Praseodymium.
    • 5619 DTC Parkway Suite 1000 Greenwood Village
    • 130 Adelaide St. W, Suite 1901 Toronto
    Lutetium is a truely rare, rare earth and hence found limited success in large industrial applications. It can be used as a catalyst, phosphor, and other lighting uses. Catalysts in cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization; detectors in positron emission tomography (PET).
    • 2676 South Grand Avenue Santa Ana