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    Because of the relatively high price of the metal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclear reactor can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment. 171Tm is potentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment, and can be used for doping fiber lasers. As with other lanthanides, thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. It should be handled with care.
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    • 130 Adelaide St. W, Suite 1901 Toronto
    Promethium has not been found to occur naturally on earth, but can be manufactured and has a number of potential uses.
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    Samarium, along with other rare earths, is used for carbon-arc lighting for the motion picture industry. SmCo5 has been used in making a new permanent magnet material with the highest resistance to demagnetization of any known material. It is said to have an intrinsic coercive force as high as 2200 kA/m. Samarium oxide has been used in optical glass to absorb the infrared. Samarium is used to dope calcium fluoride crystal for use in optical lasers or lasers. Compounds of the metal act as sensitizers for phosphors excited in the infrared; the oxide exhibits catalytic properties in the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethyl alcohol. It is used in infrared absorbing glass and as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
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    Yttrium, making up only about 0.2% of the Rare Earth content of Bastnasite, is typically not recovered from this mineral. Rather, ion-adsorption ores provide the bulk of the world’s Yttrium. Every vehicle contains Yttrium based materials that help improve the efficiency of fuels, thereby eliminating excess pollution. Another important use of Yttrium is in microwave communication devices for the defense and satellite industries. Yttrium Iron Garnets (YIG) are used as resonators for use in frequency meters, magnetic field measurement devices, tunable transistors and Gunn oscillators. Yttrium containing garnets are used in cellular communications devices by industries such as defense, satellites and phones. Yttrium and other Lanthanides have many high-tech and defense uses including being used as a stabilizer and mold former for exotic light-weight jet engine turbines and other parts, and as a stabilizer material in rocket nose cones. Yttrium, as well as many other Lanthanides, can also be formed into laser crystals specific to spectral characteristics for military communications. Yttrium ceramics can be used as crucibles for melting reactive metals and as nozzles for jet casting molten alloys. The benefits of Yttrium are also obtained by coating the oxide on other substrates. The precision investment casting of titanium utilizes the oxide as the face coat on the exposed surface of the casting mold. Small amounts of yttrium (0.1 to 0.2%) can be used to reduce the grain size in chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, and titanium, and to increase strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Alloys with other useful properties can be obtained by using yttrium as an additive. The metal can be used as a deoxidizer for vanadium and other nonferrous metals. The metal has a low cross section for nuclear capture. 90Y, one of the isotopes of yttrium, exists in equilibrium with its parent 90Sr, a product of nuclear explosions. Yttrium has been considered for use as a nodulizer for producing nodular cast iron, in which the graphite forms compact nodules instead of the usual flakes. Such iron has increased ductility. Yttrium also can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. Everyday products also utilize Yttrium. Each car contains oxygen sensors composed of Yttrium based ceramic materials. These sensors provide for the most efficient use of fuel and eliminate excess pollution from burnt fuels. Yttrium can also be found in your home as Yttrium-Europium phosphors produce the red color in CRT televisions and computer screens. And maybe even on your hand, as Yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia produces simulated diamonds.
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    Lutetium is a truely rare, rare earth and hence found limited success in large industrial applications. It can be used as a catalyst, phosphor, and other lighting uses. Catalysts in cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization; detectors in positron emission tomography (PET).
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    Cerium, atomic no. 57, symbol Ce, weight at 140.12, is the most abundant of the rare earths. It is strongly acidic and a strong oxidizer. In glass industry, it is considered to be the most efficient glass polishing agent for precision optical polishing. It is also used to decolorize glass by keeping iron in its ferrous state. Cerium is also used in a variety of ceramics, including dental compositions and as a phase stabilizer in zirconia-based products. In catalytic converters Cerium acts as a stabilizer for the high surface area alumina, as a promoter of the water-gas shift reaction, and as an oxygen storage component. It is used in FCC catalysts containing zeolites to provide both catalytic reactivity in the reactor and thermal stability in the regenerator. In steel manufacturing, it is used to remove free oxygen and sulfur.
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    Praseodymium, just 4% of the Lanthanide content of Bastnasite, is a common coloring pigment. Along with Neodymium, Praseodymium is used to filter certain wavelengths of light. Praseodymium is used in photographic filters, airport signal lenses, and welder’s glasses. Its color allows production of various pigments used in coloring products such as ceramic tile and glass. Vibrant yellow ceramic tiles and glasses most likely contain Praseodymium and certain premium quality mirrors and lenses also depend on Praseodymium.
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    Gadolinium, particularly in alloy form e.g. Gd5(Si2Ge2), demonstrates a magnetocaloric effect whereby its temperature increases when it enters a magnetic field and decreases when it leaves the magnetic field.
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    Dysprosium metal is typically prepared by calciothermic reduction of the trihalide, typically DyF3. Although its melting point is similar to Y, Gd, Tb, and Lu, its vapor pressure at the melting point is much higher. This makes purification of Dy, and similar elements Sc, Ho, and Er with high vapor pressures, comparatively easy. Common interstitial impurities which form stable compounds with nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen remain in the residue when the metal is sublimed at 1175 °C at a slow rate.1 Dysprosium metal is formed when the fluoride preferentially separates from dysprosium fluoride at high-temperature and combines with calcium metal forming calcium fluoride and deposits a high-purity dysprosium metal.
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