Ge (Germanium)

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       In the elemental form it is a lustrous white, brittle metaloid. When crystalized it has a diamond cubic structure. It is a poor conductor and is used in electronics in rectifying devices and transistors. It is also used in dental alloys. There are several compounds which contain germanium. "Germaine" or germanium hydride is a colorless gas GeH4 prepared by the action of lithium aluminum hydride on germanium halide in an ether solution. Germaine is a hazardous substance UN2192 which is classified as a poisonous gas (2.3). It is also a flammable gas (2.1). Other compounds include: Germanium dichloride Ge Cl2, Germanium dioxide GeO2, Germanium tetrachloride GeCl4 this is very irritating to eyes and membranes.

Nama lain (trademark, branding etc.)

Germanio, Germanium, Germanij, Germanium - s, Germânio, Германий, 

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Overview of Germanium
Atomic Number 32
Group 14
Period 4
Series Metalloids (Metals)
Relative Atomic Mass (12C=12.000)  72.61
Boiling Point 3103K 2830°C 5126°F
Melting Point 1210.55K 937.4°C 1719.3°F
Density/kg m-3  5323 (293K)
Ground State Electron Configuration  [Ar]3d104s24p2
Electron Affinity(M-M-)/kJ mol-1  -116
Discoverer Clemens A Winkler
Discovery Location Freiberg Germany
Discovery Year 1886
Name Origin Latin: Germania (Germany).


     Germanium is a very important semiconductor. The pure element is doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications.
     Germanium is also finding use as an alloying agent, in fluorescent lamps and as a catalyst. Both germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to infrared radiation and so are used in infrared spectroscopes. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion and is used in wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives.

Bahan Baku

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state.

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