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Y ( Yttrium )

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       Yttrium reacts with water to give hydrogen. The finely divided metal is unstable in air; metal turnings ignite in air, in contrast to lump metal which is stable.

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Yttrium, Itrij, Yttrium - s, Itrio, Иттрий

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Overview of Yttrium
Atomic Number 39
Group 3
Period 5
Series Transition Metals
Relative Atomic Mass (12C=12.000)  88.906
Boiling Point 3611K 3338°C 6040°F
Melting Point 1799K 1526°C 2779°F
Density/kg m-3  4469 (293K)
Ground State Electron Configuration  [Kr]4d15s2
Electron Affinity(M-M-)/kJ mol-1  39
Discoverer Johann Gadolin
Discovery Location  Äbo Finland
Discovery Year 1794
Name Origin From the town of Ytterby, Sweden.


       Combined with europium to make red phosphors for color TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radars. Also used in lasers, camera lenses and fireproof bricks.

Bahan Baku

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. Its only stable isotope, 89Y, is also its only naturally occurring isotope.

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    Yttrium, making up only about 0.2% of the Rare Earth content of Bastnasite, is typically not recovered from this mineral. Rather, ion-adsorption ores provide the bulk of the world’s Yttrium. Every vehicle contains Yttrium based materials that help improve the efficiency of fuels, thereby eliminating excess pollution. Another important use of Yttrium is in microwave communication devices for the defense and satellite industries. Yttrium Iron Garnets (YIG) are used as resonators for use in frequency meters, magnetic field measurement devices, tunable transistors and Gunn oscillators. Yttrium containing garnets are used in cellular communications devices by industries such as defense, satellites and phones. Yttrium and other Lanthanides have many high-tech and defense uses including being used as a stabilizer and mold former for exotic light-weight jet engine turbines and other parts, and as a stabilizer material in rocket nose cones. Yttrium, as well as many other Lanthanides, can also be formed into laser crystals specific to spectral characteristics for military communications. Yttrium ceramics can be used as crucibles for melting reactive metals and as nozzles for jet casting molten alloys. The benefits of Yttrium are also obtained by coating the oxide on other substrates. The precision investment casting of titanium utilizes the oxide as the face coat on the exposed surface of the casting mold. Small amounts of yttrium (0.1 to 0.2%) can be used to reduce the grain size in chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, and titanium, and to increase strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Alloys with other useful properties can be obtained by using yttrium as an additive. The metal can be used as a deoxidizer for vanadium and other nonferrous metals. The metal has a low cross section for nuclear capture. 90Y, one of the isotopes of yttrium, exists in equilibrium with its parent 90Sr, a product of nuclear explosions. Yttrium has been considered for use as a nodulizer for producing nodular cast iron, in which the graphite forms compact nodules instead of the usual flakes. Such iron has increased ductility. Yttrium also can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. Everyday products also utilize Yttrium. Each car contains oxygen sensors composed of Yttrium based ceramic materials. These sensors provide for the most efficient use of fuel and eliminate excess pollution from burnt fuels. Yttrium can also be found in your home as Yttrium-Europium phosphors produce the red color in CRT televisions and computer screens. And maybe even on your hand, as Yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia produces simulated diamonds.
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